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Cause-Effect and Comparison/Contrast Patterns

diposting oleh alhada-fisip11 pada 11 November 2012
di Makalah - 1 komentar

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

..........  At previous meeting, we discussed about the listing and the time orders, which are both included in the pattern of organization. And in this paper, we will discuss the kinds of pattern of Organization of the third and fourth, there are patterns of comparison / contrast and cause / effect.


1. Comparison

..........  Comparison is a rhetorical strategy and method of organization in which a writer examines similarities and/or differences between two people, places, ideas, or things. The material is organized to emphasize the similarities and/or differences between two or more items or topics. This pattern is used when the writer wants to explain similarities or differences between two things.

  1. In a comparison, the writer may explain similarities OR similarities and differences.
  2. In a contrast, the writer explains only differences.

..........  A comparison can include both similarities and differences, or only the similarities. A contrast states only differences.


2. Cause and Effect

..........  Causes and effects are part of our daily lives. Therefore, this pattern is used often by writers of history books, science texts, and novels. It is important to recognize the cause/effect pattern when you read, but it is sometimes more complicated than some of the other patterns. This pattern describes or discusses an event or action that is caused by another event or action. On occasion, this pattern is also referred to as result.


 

 

BODY

 

2.1 COMPARE-CONTRAST PATTERNS

..........  A compare and contrast pattern arranges information according to how two or more things are similar to or different from one another (or both). This is an effective pattern to use when the reader can better understand one subject when it is described in relation to another. If the reader is familiar with one topic, the writer can compare or contrast it with another topic to shed insight on it.

..........  For example, suppose a writer's stated purpose is to help the reader make an informed decision about whether to attend a two-year college or a four-year university. One way to arrange the information is to compare and contrast the two educational options along several important dimensions, such as cost, quality of education, and variety of educational programs. In this case, the number of main sections in the outline would depend on how many dimensions or factors were considered (three in the case below). Another way to arrange the information would be to create two main sections, one that describes similarities and one that describes differences.

..........  This pattern is used when the writer wants to explain similarities or differences between two things.

  1. In a comparison, the writer may explain similarities OR similarities and differences.
  2. In a contrast, the writer explains only differences. 

..........  In the comparison/contrast pattern, the writer's main idea is a general statement about two things and how they are similar and/or different. A comparison can include both similarities and differences, or only the similarities. A contrast states only differences.

• Key words/phrases in the main idea: similarities, differences, both, in common, same, different, compare, comparison

• Signal words/phrases for similarities: similarly, also, in the same way, as, like, both, in common.

..........  Contrast is a rhetorical strategy and method of organization in which a writer examines only differences between two people, places, ideas, or things

  1. Signal words/phrases for differences: however, but, on the other hand, although, while, in contrast, than, conversely, yet, unlike.

 

2.2THE EXAMPLES OF COMPARISON AND CONTRAST

EXAMPLE :

       My two children are so different that it surprises me every day. For one thing, my older child is a girl, and my younger child is a boy. My daughter loves reading, going to the movies, and writing in her journal. My son, on theother hand, loves running, jumping, and swimming– anything that requires using energy. My daughter loves all different kinds of foods, but my son likes to eat only pizza. And whilemy son can’t go a day without watching some kind of sporting event on television, my daughter will only watch a baseball game if nothing else is on.

Adapted from O Magazine, (2001) “Set Yourself Free,” p37.


2.3CAUSE-EFFECT PATTERNS 

..........  This pattern is used to show the different causes and effects of various conditions. This pattern is particularly effective when writing a persuasive document in which the writer advocates some action to solve a problem, because it demonstrates important relationships between variables. There are two major variations to this pattern; (a) dividing the outline into two major sections comprised of causes and effects; or (b) dividing the outline according to the different causes, with the effects of each cause contained within the larger "causes" section. See the examples below.

..........  Suppose a writer's stated purpose is to explain the causes of conflict escalation and their effects. He/she could organize the information in one of the following two ways. Again, notice that either method could work equally well.

Cause and effect signal words :

1. because, for this reason, due to, cause, on account of, if this, then this…

2. as a result, since, consequently, therefore, thus, in effect, resulting, and the out come is...

            In this pattern, the writer's main idea is that one event or action caused another event or

action.

• Key words/phrases in the main idea and the signal words for details are the same and often include: causes, leads to, is the cause of, results in, creates, brings about, makes, provokes, produces, gives rise to, contributes to, is due to, is the result of, comes from, results from, is produced by, is a consequence of, follows, is caused by.

There are four possible cause-effect relationships:

  1. single cause - single effect
  2. single cause - multiple effects
  3. multiple causes - single effect
  4. multiple causes - multiple effects

 

2.4 THE EXAMPLES OF CAUSE-EFFECT

..........  In 2003, two robotic rovers landed on Mars and began sending back data about the possible existence of water on the red planet. This close examination of Mars was the result of new and improved technology. Because of advances in telecommunication systems, scientists on Earth can send commands faster and receive data in greater amounts. New software in the rovers led to their increased ability to make independent decisions and avoid dangers and hazards on their own. As a result of new technologies for severe environments, the rovers and their interior computers were able to survive the extreme cold and hot conditions in space and on Mars. And due to their new improved wheels the twin rovers could move around the rocky Martian landscape with ease.

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

..........  From the description above, we can conclude that:

1. Comparison and Contrast, more specifically, are :

  1. In a comparison, the writer may explain similarities OR similarities and differences.
  2. In a contrast, the writer explains only differences.

2. A comparison can include:

  1. both similarities and differences
  2. only the similarities

3. Contrast states only differences.

  1. Cause-effect Pattern describes or discusses an event or action that is caused by another event or action. On occasion, this pattern is also referred to as result. In this pattern, the writer's main idea is that one event or action caused another event or action.

 

 

 

REFERENCES


  1. http://faculty.washington.edu/ezent/impo.htm
  2. http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/comparison2term.htm
  3. http://papyr.com/hypertextbooks/comp1/compare.htm
  4. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/composition/cause_effect.htm
  5. http://wps.ablongman.com/long_mcwhorter_ersonline_1/0,2257,70240-,00.html

1 Komentar

njgyORSIy

pada : 16 January 2013


"dont even worry about guitar tabs. they are for poplee who cant read music for the most part. basically with a guitar , the difference is that the chords arent all equally easy to play like on the keyboard. you will spend more time developing your rhythm on guitar and learning to vary it more. what will be easier for you is that you have developed an ear, and that music theory is the same no matter what instrument you play. one thing to remember is that the guitar is tuned in 4ths with a 3rd thrown in, so your scales will look and feel kinda funny. here\'s something i learned 15 years ago when i first started playing guitar to remember the open stringsE veryA wesomeD ogG etsB onesE verydaysilly i know, but it works."


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