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PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION

diposting oleh alhada-fisip11 pada 20 April 2012
di Makalah - 42 komentar

 

PART 1

INTRODUCTION

 

v  PATTERN OF ORGANIZATION

 

Organizational patterns are dictated by the  writer’s main idea, not the other way around.  Writers may stick to one pattern of development, combine two or three, or dispense altogether with any pre-existing patterns of organization.  The method of development always depends on what the idea being put forth calls for.  Sometimes, when students learn about organizational patterns, they think that maintaining the pattern is more important than developing their point.  It isn’t.  Writers don’t write cause-and-effect essays.  They write essays, articles, or,  indeed, entire books, that may (or may not) use the cause-and-effect pattern of organization to convey ideas.

 

What are Patterns of Organization?

  • Details support a main or implied main idea. Authors often organize supporting details in a particular order…thus creating a pattern.
  • Patterns of organization are the groupings of the supporting details .
  • Detecting the patterns of organization of the major and minor details can help with comprehension and retention.

 

Separating supporting points from main ideas is an important reading skill. The organization of the supporting details will help you understand how an author thinks. Detecting the patterns of organization of the major and minor details can help with comprehension and retention. Patterns of organization help us to understand and make prediction what is the writer talking about. The thesis or main idea is usually a  good predictor of the organization of an essay or paragraph.

There are several form pattern of organization that usually containing in the paragraph, such as listing, time order, comparison, and also cause-effect. Its important for the reader to know what kind of pattern of organization which help them to understanding main idea from paragraph.

Recognizing the patterns, basically knowing the organization of the supporting details, will help you

•understand how an author thinks

      as we can recognizing the pattern, we also find the main idea. and it will help us to understanding the paragraph.

•logically order the information

 

•begin predicting test questions

      when we know about the pattern, we can predicting what will happen next.

 

Example:

  1. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10……..
  2. 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20…….
  3. A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L…….

 

All of them have pattern, and also in the text have pattern. But the difference between pattern that was containing in the example and in the text is a signal words.

      Signal Words

      Signal words, also known as transitions, are words which indicate the relationship between ideas, and the organization of the details.

 

 

 

 

PART 2

BODY

v  Listing

In the listing pattern, the writer states the main idea in the form of a generalization and

gives a list of details or examples to support that general statement.

(1)   Key words/phrases in the main idea: many, several, a number of, a variety of, a few, kinds of

(2)   Signal words/phrases: for example, for instance, first, second, another, also, besides, in addition, final, last, most important.

Pattern Characteristic: Listing

Simple Listing: The paragraph identifies or names a number of specific features, characteristics or examples that require no specific order of presentation.

  • The pattern is likely to include topic sentences with    phrases such as “several key cases,” “a number of symptoms,” or “several studies.”
  • The details give specifics about the cases, symptoms, or studies, but they require no specific order of presentation; they can be rearranged to suit the author.

Example:

  1. There are several members in my group. They are Alvi, Makita, Brian, and also Bryan. Not only that, Fattah, and Esty is my group too. 
  • In this case, we can find more than one  keyword or signal to know the pattern of organization from that paragraph. The key and signal is “several, also, not only that”.
  1. I would like introduce my group to you. First, I will introduce my self. My name is Makita. And Second one who stand beside me is Brian, and the third is Fattah. Please listen carefully when the presentations begin.
  • In this case, we can find more than one  keyword or signal to know the pattern of organization from that paragraph. The key and signal is, “First, Second, and also third.

 

v  Time Order

Also known and stages, narration or sequence of events, in this pattern, ideas are presented in the order in which they occurred in time.

Signal word : first, third,…; next; then; finally; eventually; following this.

Pattern Characteristic: Time Order

  • The paragraph (1) includes a number of dates and events comprising someone’s life or  career or (2)  traces the events that preceded a particularly important social change or historical occurrence.
  • The pattern is likely to include transitions such as by 1972, after the fall of 1941, in the summer of 2010.
  • The events are ordered according to how they occurred in real time.

Example:

  1. 1.      Gold was first found in California in about 1840. The next ten years in American history are called the California Gold Rush. Many people moved to the west during those years  to look for gold. By1850,there were many new “ Gold Rush” towns in California

 

  • We can find signal word to decide the pattern of organizations of that paragraph.  The signal words is “First, the next ten years”
  1. 2.      Congresswoman Barbara Jordan’s life was punctuated by a long list of personal and professional achievements.  Born in Houston, Texas in 1936, Jordan made history in 1966 when she became the first African American to serve in the Texas senate since 1883.  On March 21, 1967, she became the first African American to preside over the state senate.  In 1972, Jordan ran for Congress and won.   She gained national prominence during the televised Watergate proceedings of 1974, when her eloquence impressed a national audience.  In 1976, she became the first African American to give a keynote address before the Democratic National Convention.  Jordan retired from politics in 1979 due to ill health.  She died in 1996.
  • We can find signal word to decide the pattern of organizations of that paragraph.  The signal words is “in 1936, in 1966, since, On March, etc”

 

 

 

PART 3

CONCLUTION

 

            There are several form pattern of organization that usually containing in the paragraph, such as listing, time order, comparison, and also cause-effect. Its important for the reader to know what kind of pattern of organization which help them to understanding main idea from paragraph.

In the listing pattern, the writer states the main idea in the form of a generalization and gives a list of details or examples to support that general statement.

(1)   Key words/phrases in the main idea: many, several, a number of, a variety of, a few, kinds of

(2)   Signal words/phrases: for example, for instance, first, second, another, also, besides, in addition, final, last, most important.

And in time order also known and stages, narration or sequence of events, in this pattern, ideas are presented in the order in which they occurred in time.

(1)   Signal word : first, third,…; next; then; finally; eventually; following this.

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

  • www.google.co.id/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=pattern of organization&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CDgQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kimskorner4teachertalk.com%2Fwriting%2Forganization%2Fpatterns.html&ei=XZXdTvHuFsOGrAez8qHbCA&usg=AFQjCNHDUHlD2koyyjowrp675y1Q9kuymg&cad=rja
  • http://www.investorwords.com/4981/time_order.html
  • http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as/307.HTM
  • http://www.google.co.id/webhp?hl=id&tab=Tw&q=begin#sclient=psy-ab&hl=id&site=webhp&source=hp&q=RfR.Ch9-Organizational+Patterns_New&pbx=1&oq=RfR.Ch9-Organizational+Patterns_New&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=316671l362629l4l363739l77l40l0l0l0l0l0l0ll3l0&psj=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=9022639cf63b1f4f&biw=1252&bih=609

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